Japanese Language Particles : o, ni, de and e (を、に、で、へ)

皆さんこんばんは、http://japaneselearningonline.blogspot.com にようこそ^^. Hey everyone welcome to http://japaneselearningonline.blogspot.com, in this section we are learning the second lesson, Japanese particles. In the first Japanese particle lesson we learned the subject marker particles.
In the second particle lesson, we are learning about object marker particles o, ni, de and e (を、に、で、へ), we will start from を particle.

を (o) the direct object marker particle

The particle を always is pronounced o not wo. This particle marks the recipient of an action. The を particle is attached to the end of a word to signify that that word is the direct object of the verb. Here are some examples of the direct object particle.
gohan o taberu
to take a meal [eat a meal (of rice)]
omizu o nomu
to drink water
watashi wa nihongo o benkyou shimasu
to learn Japanese
shinbun o yomu
to read newspaper
In Japanese, the subject is usually omitted like the some of the examples above. So Japanese people often say "gohan o tabemasu" instead of "watashi wa gohan o tabemasu" to say "I eat a meal". In Japanese, places can also be the direct object of motion verbs, example:
sora o tobu
to fly through the sky
hashi o wataru
to cross the bridge
michi o aruku
to walk down the street
As with much of the language, parts of a sentence that can be assumed from context are often omitted and the direct object particle is commonly dropped in colloquial Japanese.

に (ni) The target particle

The second is に particle, this is the indirect object marker particle used to indicate the target of a verb, translating as "to", "at", "on" or "in". It also indicates the location touched or affected by an event or action. The idea of a target in Japanese is very general and is not restricted to motion verbs. For example, the location of an object is defined as the target of the verb for existence (ある and いる). Time is also a common target. Example:
nihon ni iku
to go to Japan
watashi wa kyoushitsu ni imasu
I am in classroom
tomodachi ni purezento o ageru
to give a present to the friend
nichiyoubi ni aimasu
to meet on sunday
neko wa niwa ni iru
cat is in the yard
raigetsu ni kyouto ni iku
to go to kyoto next month
kyoushi ni naru
to become a teacher

で (de) the contextual or instrument particle

The third particle we learn in this post is de, this particle will allow us to specify the context in which the action is performed. Translated "at" "in" or "by" in English. Example:
densha de kaerimasu
to return by train
kono kotoba wa nihongo de nandesu ka
what is the meaning of this word in Japanese
(this word is what in Japanese language)
resutoran de hirugohan o taberu
to eat lunch at restaurant
jitensha de gakkou ni iku
to go to the school by bicycle
supuun de yoku tabemasu
I often eat with spoon (I often eat using spoon)
gakkou de nihongo o benkyou shimasu
I learn Japanese language at the school

へ (e) The destination marker particle

Although it is written with hiragana へ but when へ as a particle is always pronounced え (e). This particle is roughly translated "to" or "toward" in English, Do you think this particle is similar to に the target particle? yeah, they are similar but not completely the same, The primary difference between the に and へ particle is that に goes to a target as the final, intended destination (both physical or abstract). The へ particle, on the other hand, is used to express the fact that one is setting out towards the direction of the target. As a result, it is only used with directional motion verbs. It also does not guarantee whether the target is the final intended destination, only that one is heading towards that direction. In other words, the に particle sticks to the destination while the へ particle is fuzzy about where one is ultimately headed. Here some examples of the sentences using へ particle:
nihon e ikimasu
to go to Japan (to go towards Japan but it can be only go to the country near Japan for example)
okaasan wa mise e iku
mother goes towards to store (it can be my mother go to the place near that store with the same direction)
rizu yori anatatachi e
from riizhu to you
mirai e mukau
to go towards future

All right, that is the today's lesson about the function of を、に、で and へ particles^^. I hope you enjoyed the lesson and understand our explanation and understand these particles well^^. But if you still don't understand feel free to comment^^ and if this article helps you, please share with your friends^^, and I will be right back, see you next time guys, bye bye.

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